FLOWer - Education for Patients

What is Aortic Stenosis (AS) or Aortic Valve Stenosis?

DISCLAIMER: Please consult with a qualified healthcare professional for accurate diagnosis, treatment recommendations, and personalized care.

Aortic valve stenosis is a type of heart valve disease where the valve between the left ventricle and the body’s main artery (aorta) is narrowed and doesn’t open fully, generally because of calcium buildup.
This can reduce or block blood flow from the heart to the rest of the body.

Aortic valve stenosis can range from mild to severe, and symptoms typically only occur when the narrowing of the valve is severe. However, some people with aortic valve stenosis may not have symptoms for many years.

For those facing aortic valve stenosis and considering Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI), our FLOWer Embolic Protection Device offers a significant advancement in safety. Designed to safeguard against complications, FLOWer acts as a vigilant guard during your procedure, capturing and removing debris that could lead to stroke or affect vital organs. Its efficient deployment ensures a safer procedure with reduced risks, allowing you to focus on a swift and confident recovery. With FLOWer, you’re choosing not just a treatment, but a path to a safer, more secure future.

Did you know?

Main Symptoms of Aortic Stenosis

Causes of Aortic Stenosis

The most common cause of aortic stenosis is calcific degenerative disease, a build-up of calcium on the valve cusps that occurs with increasing age. Risk factors of aortic valve stenosis include:

Treatment options

Treatment options are available, depending on the severity of your condition.

Medical management: This involves close monitoring of your condition and managing symptoms with medications. Medications may include diuretics to reduce fluid buildup, medications to lower blood pressure, and medications to control heart rate or rhythm.


Balloon valvuloplasty: This is a less invasive valve repair procedure where a balloon-tipped catheter is used to open up the narrowed aortic valve. However, this is typically considered a temporary solution and may not be suitable for all patients.


Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR): This is a traditional open-heart surgery where the damaged aortic valve is replaced with a mechanical or biological valve. SAVR is typically recommended for younger patients or those with certain clinical characteristics that may not be suitable for TAVR or TAVI.


Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI): TAVR or TAVI is a minimally invasive procedure where a replacement valve is implanted through a catheter, typically via femoral artery puncture. In Europe, TAVI is often recommended for elderly patients (over 75)* or those who may not be suitable candidates for open-heart surgery due to various health reasons.


Potential risks of TAVI / TAVR may include embolization of calcium or other particles which can cause stroke. This can be minimized with the use of an EPD (embolic protection device).


Cerebral embolic protection devices are filters designed to capture or deflect emboli traveling to the brain during TAVI procedures to protect the supra-aortic vessels from embolic debris.

It’s important to note that the choice of treatment option will depend on various factors, including the severity of the aortic valve stenosis, overall health status, age, and other individual factors. Your healthcare provider will evaluate your condition and recommend the most appropriate treatment option tailored to your needs. Untreated severe AS can lead to heart failure and sudden death.

Risk of stroke after TAVI: Impact on patients

patient fear

cause of permanent disability